What stones are precious?
Over time, people have learned to skillfully process stones, creating amazingly beautiful jewelry. Especially rare minerals are bordered with noble metals of the highest standard, and the cost of such products becomes feasible only for a wealthy part of the population of the planet. The price of one carat of gem reaches $ 45,000.Such jewelry is not supplied to jewelry stores, they are sold at auctions, and avid collectors buy them.
Simplified Mineral Classification
Diamond is considered to be a type of crystalline carbon of natural origin in its raw form, and a diamond is the same stone, only already cut
In the XIX century, in order to systematize the accumulated knowledge, people divided minerals into two groups. For two epochs, the established categories have undergone changes, therefore today natural formations are classified into 3 subspecies:
- Precious minerals - diamond, euclase, all the colors of sapphire and chrysoberyl, crystalline formations of spinel and ruby, as well as alexandrite, emeralds and lala.
- Semi-precious crystals - high quality garnet and Labrador, mineral compounds of epidote, solar and lunar stones, the formation of turquoise and amethyst of light shades, as well as dioptase and chalcedony in this category, crystal structures of rock crystal, rauchtopaz and tourmalin.
- Ornamental and decorative stones - jade; bloodstone; amber; corals; lapis lazuli; jet; vesuvman; spar; jasper; pink and smoky quartz; amazonite; labrador of poor quality.
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The rarest, hardest and durable minerals are in the “Precious” class, so the cost of natural formations present in this category is a priori high. To classify minerals, gemologists adhere to the following system for evaluating stones:
- The principle of the structure of crystals.
- Structural features of minerals.
- The chemical composition of stones.
- The method of processing crystals.
- The origin of the mineral formations (natural or artificial method).
The international classification of stones of mineral origin does not traditionally include pearls, because “peas” are formed in the shells of mollusks. However, organic compounds are equivalent to class I
If the crystalline compound corresponds to the standard parameters of the rock, then gemologists refer natural stone to the class "Precious".
The law on the classification of mineral and organic formations in the Russian Federation
According to the legislation of the Russian Federation, precious stones are divided into categories in accordance with the improved methodology created by the gemologist E.Ya. Kievlenko.Jeweler revised the classical classification of natural formations, offering 4 classes of minerals, taking into account crystallography and structural parameters:
- Group I consists of diamonds (diamonds) and rubies, mineral formations of blue sapphire and alexandrite, and also emeralds are included in this category.
- In group II noble minerals jadeite and black opal are present, here all the colors of sapphire (except for the blue shade) are classified.
- Group III "includes" demantoid and topaz of all colors, it contains noble spinel formations, as well as white and bright red opal. Burgundy tourmaline and all types of aquamarine, mineral compounds of moonstone and rhodolite are classified into this category.
- Group IV consists of turquoise and crystalline formations of almandine, here "enter" amethyst and mineral compounds of pyrope, and also chrysolite. Tourmaline is located here, as well as citrine and noble varieties of kunzite. Chrysoprase and zircon are located in this category of minerals, as well as bright colors of beryl.
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The found crystal formation is necessarily evaluated by gemologists at the state level. If the characteristics of the mineral or organic compound meet the standards of the breed, then a corresponding certificate of authenticity of natural origin is issued for the stone.
Referring to Law No. 41-FZ of May 26, 1998, natural stones of class I, including pearls and unique amber formations, are considered precious in Russia. All organic compounds are equated to expensive stones only after a corresponding decree issued by the bodies of the Government of the Russian Federation, therefore the current list can be changed only in a federal manner.
In choosing jewelry with a refined mineral, follow the laws of the country in which you intend to acquire a crystalline or organic formation. It is advisable to find out which stones belong to precious minerals, subject to a federal decree - this approach will protect you from buying a synthetic product instead of a genuine crystal.
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