How to make a foundation with your own hands
It is necessary to mark the area of the building plot. Marking for digging the foundation must be done with the help of pegs and fishing line stretched over them. When the trenches for the foundation are dug, you can proceed to the next stage.
It is necessary to level the bottom of the trench and put a "pillow", it is a 20-cm layer of sand, which must be poured abundantly with water and compacted. Next, pour a 20-centimeter layer of rubble. And then provide waterproofing of the foundation, putting roofing material, film or special material for waterproofing.
Now you can proceed to the formwork. Which is made of horizontal wooden beams fastened together. And propped on the outside by vertical bars (for stability). For formwork, try to take beams as equal as possible. It must be installed on the entire depth of the foundation. At this stage, you need to think about where the holes for communications will be located. You can insert pipes directly into the formwork.In this case, do not forget to fill the pipes with wet earth or sand (to protect the pipes from falling into the concrete mix).
The most crucial stage is the reinforcement of the foundation. For reinforcement it is necessary to build a reinforcement structure. To do this, you need to take 2 reinforcement along the length of the dug trench, arrange them in parallel with respect to each other; then attach vertical bars of reinforcement to each end (the height of the reinforcement will be equal to the height of the foundation). Through 10-20 cm to the vertical reinforcement anchor horizontal. And so on to the end. It is necessary to knit reinforcement with special wire. The size of the reinforcement, as well as the distance between the tiers for each foundation are individual.
Concrete mortar is used to fill the foundation. His brand is also selected individually. The solution is prepared in the following ratio: 1: 3: 3, which means that 1 part of cement has 3 parts of sand and rubble. Remember: the sand must be clean, without any impurities (eg clay)! Add water to the mixture. It should be medium mass density, it should not in any case spread.Each poured layer must be compacted, and the upper part must be watered (some) with water.
After 4-7 days (depending on the weather), you can begin waterproofing the foundation. Remove the formwork and put the insulation from the inside around the perimeter of the foundation.
And after 2-3 weeks you can start building walls.
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