Decompensated diabetes: what it is, the degree of compensation and criteria
Decompensated diabetes is a pathology in which the blood sugar level does not decrease with the help of drugs, during which the organs and systems of a person are affected so seriously that it requires immediate medical attention. Exacerbations include the development of hypo- and hyperglycemia, diabetic keto-acetic disease, and in diabetics of the second type, hypersmolar hyperglycemia.
Diabetes mellitus decompensation usually occurs when the patient does not follow his own diet and allows himself to take a lot of carbohydrates, as a result of which insulin and other drugs simply cannot keep up the normal glucose. However, there are other reasons for the development of this pathology:
- improper treatment, when medications are taken in too small a dose, or a break in therapy occurs;
- use of dietary supplements instead of medical treatment, since supplements cannot stabilize glucose levels, they only indirectly affect it;
- the use of household, folk remedies instead of drugs;
- acute infectious diseases, because they weaken the human immune system and provoke a loss of fluid in the body.
There are three such degrees: compensation, subcompensation and decompensation. Compensation is a stage at which the level of peptide hormone is within the normal range, the patient’s health is not threatened, he feels energetic, does not feel pathological thirst, dry mouth, urination is also normal (no frequent urge). This stage is achieved through a proper diet, regular intake of prescribed medications and exercise.
With a subcompensation degree, the production of peptide hormone is reduced, but it does not reach serious pathologies. This stage is determined by such features as:
- glycemia reaches 13.8 mmol / l;
- the analysis reveals that there is no acetone in the urine.
Decompensation is a condition where the destruction of beta cells leads to a serious decrease in the amount of peptide hormone and, as a result, to the threat of the development of dangerous pathologies.
Decompensated diabetes can be determined by the following features:
- glycemia reaches 9 mmol / l;
- fatigue increases, weight decreases for no apparent reason;
- nausea, vomiting, or dizziness occurs;
- urination increases pathologically;
- there is always a feeling of hunger;
- developing shortness of breath, abdominal pain and headaches;
- sweating increases, there are difficulties with awakening;
- arterial hypotension appears.
Decompensated diabetes is treated only by a doctor, the therapy itself includes the following factors:
- medical examination of the patient;
- correct use of drugs to control peptide hormone;
- proper diet.
In diabetes, there are a number of criteria in order to assess the stage of compensation:
- glycated hemoglobin level;
- complete blood count for sugar;
- glucose tolerance test;
- the presence of urine dextrose.
The main one is the level of glycated hemoglobin. Glycation is the combination of dextrose with proteins. When hemoglobin is combined with it, it is glycated.The content of such protein for most patients is 7%, in pregnant women - 6.1%, in the elderly 8%, and in diabetics - 6.5%.
According to the power norms, the compensation criterion for different stages looks like this:
- compensatory - less than 285 mmol / l;
- subcompensational - from 286 and up to 350 mmol / l;
- decompensated - more than 350 mmol / l.
The blood sugar level should be examined 2 hours after eating, before bedtime and on an empty stomach.
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