Causes and treatment of urinary incontinence

Urinary incontinence is a very delicate and, unfortunately, quite common problem. But if you start to act on time, then you can get rid of such trouble.

What it is?

Urinary incontinence is its involuntary discharge. Normally, a healthy person can control urination. So, the exit from the bladder is surrounded by a special muscle - the sphincter. It closes the hole and does not allow urine to go out involuntarily. When the bladder overflows, a signal comes through the nerves to the brain that provokes the urge to urinate.

The person decides to go to the toilet, the sphincter is weakened, the walls of the bladder contract and thereby push its contents. After that, the sphincter returns to its normal state, that is, it contracts. And if any of these complex mechanisms are disturbed, urinary incontinence occurs.

That is, it may occur due to the weakening of the supporting structures of the small pelvis (they allow you to maintain the normal state of the bladder),dysfunction of the bladder muscle walls or due to insolvency of the sphincter of the bladder or urethra.

It should be noted that incontinence is most often found in women (according to statistics, about 40% of women of childbearing age experienced its symptoms), and this is due to the peculiarities of the structure of the genitourinary system and its changes after childbirth. Men face this problem much less often.

What happens?

There are several types of urinary incontinence:

  • Stress or stress incontinence. In this case, a small amount of urine is released during exertion, for example, when coughing, laughing, sneezing, abruptly changing body position, lifting weights, and other similar actions.
  • Urgent or imperative incontinence is characterized by sharp and sudden rather strong urge to urinate and the subsequent uncontrolled release of urine. Sometimes a person simply does not manage to walk to the toilet. Such a violation is associated with involuntary and active contractions of the walls of the bladder. Desires can occur both at night and during the day, and several times.
  • Mixed incontinence is a combination of symptoms of imperative and stressful form. Dribbling of urine can be observed under stress, and with sudden urging, and even without them. This form is typical for women aged 50-70 years.
  • Overflow incontinence is associated with excessive stretching of the bladder walls and its constant overflow. Leakage in this case is observed when filling the cavity of the bladder. That is, if it is completely or at least partially empty, urine will not be excreted.
  • Permanent incontinence is caused by sphincter weakness. With this form, urine is released in small amounts, but regularly and almost constantly.

What can arise?

Causes of urinary incontinence can be very diverse:

  • In women, incontinence develops most often after complicated or multiple births. In this case, there is a stretching or rupture of the pelvic floor muscles and the omission of all the organs of the small pelvis, which these muscles maintain in normal condition.
  • Infectious diseases of the genitourinary system, the most common of which is cystitis.
  • Some hormonal disorders.For example, estrogens maintain the muscle fibers of the urogenital system in a normal state. And with their lack of, the muscles of the urethra may weaken, leading to leakage of urine.
  • Menopause or menopause. At these stages in the body of a woman there are serious alterations that often lead to hormonal imbalance and a lack of important female hormones, in particular estrogen.
  • Neoplasms localized in the bladder.
  • Some injuries and diseases of the spine (it is located in close proximity to the bladder, so that it can affect its work).
  • Some congenital pathologies and abnormalities of the structure of the organs of the genitourinary system.
  • Injuries to the pelvic organs or operations performed on them.
  • Some diseases of the nervous system, leading to dysregulation of the process of emptying the bladder.
  • Regular or permanent excessive loads (lifting weights, heavy physical work, weightlifting).
  • Acceptance of certain drugs that affect the conduct of nerve impulses. These include adrenergic blockers, norepinephrine, adrenaline mediators.
  • Prostate adenoma in men.

How to find out the reasons?

To diagnose and find out the causes of problems can only urologist and after a comprehensive examination, including urinalysis, ultrasound and other diagnostic measures.

How to solve a problem?

The treatment of incontinence will directly depend on the causes that caused it, and elimination should be directed at them.

Possible directions of therapy:

  1. Changing the way of life. Begin with nutrition. It will be necessary to exclude or at least limit the consumption of all drinks and products that have a diuretic effect. These include tea, coffee, berries, and so on. You also need to exercise weight control and give up bad habits. Until the causes of incontinence are eliminated, the bladder will have to be emptied by the hour. In some cases, a gradual increase in the interval between urination is effective.
  2. When weakening the pelvic floor muscles, Kegel exercises will help to strengthen them. So, you need to imagine that you really want to go to the toilet and, as it were, restrain the urge in every possible way. Then you should relax and repeat the exercise 10-20 times. Conduct such training should be several times a day to improve.
  3. Medications can be used to eliminate cramps and to relax the walls of the bladder. These include "Drotaverin", "No-shpa", "Dicyclomine", "Imipramine" and some others.
  4. When hormonal disruptions are prescribed hormonal agents.
  5. Antibiotics may be recommended for cystitis.
  6. In some cases, antidepressants are prescribed.
  7. Procedures involving the electrostimulation of the pelvic floor muscles and aimed at strengthening them.
  8. Can be used folk remedies, for example, decoctions or infusions of bay leaf, elecampane, sage. Useful honey and ordinary onions.
  9. With a significant omission of the pelvic organs, surgical intervention will be prescribed to return them to their normal position. With sphincter insufficiency, an artificial valve can be created. Also performed operations for fixation of the bladder.

Be healthy!

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